Alan Dickman, Program Director
144 Columbia Hall
5223 University of Oregon
Eugene OR 97403-5223
Brendan J. M. Bohannan, associate professor (microbial ecology). See Biology.
Peg Boulay, instructor (environmental monitoring, wildlife conservation, outreach and education); codirector, environmental leadership and advising. BS, 1989, Furman; MS, 1992, Florida. (2009)
Scott D. Bridgham, professor (ecosystem ecology, climate change). See Biology.
Trudy Ann Cameron, Raymond F. Mikesell Professor of Environmental and Resource Economics (environmental economics). See Economics.
Allison Carruth, assistant professor (environmental literature and media, modern and postmodern culture, globalization theory). See English.
Matthew Dennis, professor (colonial and early national America, American cultural and environmental history, American Indian history). See History.
Alan Dickman, senior instructor with title of research associate professor. See Biology.
Kathryn A. Lynch, instructor (environmental leadership, tropical conservation, environmental education); codirector, environmental leadership and advising. BS, 1992, California, Davis; MA, 1995, PhD, 2001, Florida. (2005)
Richard D. Margerum, associate professor (collaborative environmental management, conflict management in multistakeholder processes). See Planning, Public Policy and Management.
Patricia F. McDowell, professor (river management and restoration). See Geography.
Ronald B. Mitchell, professor (environmental politics, international relations). See Political Science.
Brook Muller, associate professor (environmentally responsive architecture). See Architecture.
Kari Norgaard, associate professor (environment, climate-change denial). See Sociology.
Joshua J. Roering, associate professor (geomorphology, landscape evolution modeling). See Geological Sciences.
Ted Toadvine, associate professor (environmental ethics, ecophenomenology). See Philosophy.
Peter A. Walker, professor (environmental politics, political ecology). See Geography.
Louise Westling, professor (ecocriticism, environmental humanities). See English.
Richard York, associate professor (assessing anthropogenic driving forces of global environmental change). See Sociology.
The date in parentheses at the end of each entry is the first year on the University of Oregon faculty.
Susan C. Anderson, German and Scandinavian
William S. Ayres, anthropology
Patrick J. Bartlein, geography
Carol Ann Bassett, journalism and communication
Carla Bengtson, art
Ann Bettman, landscape architecture
Aletta Biersack, anthropology
Thomas H. Bivins, journalism and communication
James Blanchard, physical education and recreation
John E. Bonine, law
Gregory D. Bothun, physics
Chet A. Bowers, environmental studies
William E. Bradshaw, biology
Yvonne A. Braun, women’s and gender studies
G. Z. Brown, architecture
Mark Carey, honors college
George C. Carroll, biology
Lawrence R. Carter, sociology
Katharine V. Cashman, geological sciences
Richard W. Castenholz, biology
Suzanne Clark, English
Shaul E. Cohen, geography
John S. Conery, computer and information science
William A. Cresko, biology
James R. Crosswhite, English
Edward B. Davis, Museum of Natural and Cultural History
Jerome Diethelm, landscape architecture
Rebecca J. Dorsey, geological science
Michael C. Dreiling, sociology
Jeffrey Edmundson, education studies
James R. Elliott, sociology
Richard B. Emlet, biology
Paul C. Engelking, chemistry
Arthur M. Farley, computer and information science
John B. Foster, sociology
John T. Gage, English
Dennis C. Galvan, international studies
Daniel Gavin, geography
Daniel Goldrich, political science
Jessica L. Green, biology
Patricia A. Gwartney, sociology
William T. Harbaugh, economics
Susan W. Hardwick, geography
Jill A. Harrison, sociology
Kenneth I. Helphand, landscape architecture
Michael Hibbard, planning, public policy and management
Anthony "Tim" Hicks, law
Richard G. Hildreth, law
Derrick Hindery, international studies
Janet Hodder, Oregon Institute of Marine Biology
Garrett K. Hongo, creative writing
Samantha Hopkins, honors college
Carl J. Hosticka, planning, public policy and management
David Hulse, landscape architecture
James E. Hutchison, chemistry
Renee A. Irvin, planning, public policy and management
Colin Ives, art
Grant Jacobsen, planning, public policy and management
Bart Johnson, landscape architecture
Mark Johnson, philosophy
Eric Jones, anthropology
Lamia Karim, anthropology
Douglas J. Kennett, anthropology
Lauren J. Kessler, journalism and communication
Svitlana Kravchenko, law
Gyoung-Ah Lee, anthropology
Glen A. Love, English
Bonnie Mann, philosophy
W. Andrew Marcus, geography
Theresa May, theater arts
Gregory McLauchlan, sociology
Jerry F. Medler, political science
Kate Meehan, geography
Robert Z. Melnick, landscape architecture
Debra L. Merskin, journalism and communication
Erin Moore, architecture
Geraldine Moreno Black, anthropology
Cassandra Moseley, Institute for a Sustainable Environment
Madonna L. Moss, anthropology
Alexander B. Murphy, geography
Lise Nelson, geography
Jeffrey Ostler, history
Robert G. Parker, planning, public policy and management
Max Nielsen-Pincus, Institute for a Sustainable Environment
Stephen E. Ponder, journalism and communication
Daniel A. Pope, history
Scott L. Pratt, philosophy
Mark H. Reed, geological sciences
Gregory J. Retallack, geological sciences
John S. Reynolds, architecture
Robert G. Ribe, landscape architecture
William Rossi, English
Bitty A. Roy, biology
Michael V. Russo, management
Gordon M. Sayre, English
Marc Schlossberg, planning, public policy and management
Alan Shanks, biology
Lynda P. Shapiro, biology
Paul Slovic, psychology
J. Josh Snodgrass, anthropology
Michael Strong, physical education and recreation
Lawrence S. Sugiyama, anthropology
David Sutherland, geological sciences
Kelly Sutherland, geological sciences
Richard P. Suttmeier, political science
Nora B. Terwilliger, biology
Roxi Thoren, landscape architecture
Joseph W. Thornton, biology
Nelson Ting, anthropology
Dennis Todd, honors college
Douglas R. Toomey, geological sciences
Daniel Udovic, biology
Peter Warnek, philosophy
Marsha Weisiger, history
Peter B. Wetherwax, biology
Ray J. Weldon, geological sciences
W. Ed Whitelaw, economics
A. Michelle Wood, biology
Mary C. Wood, law
Stephen R. Wooten, international studies
Yizhao Yang, planning, public policy and management
Philip D. Young, anthropology
Robert F. Young, planning, public policy and management
About the Program
Environmental studies crosses the boundaries of traditional disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, humanities, management, policy, design, and law. It challenges faculty members and students to look at the relationship between humans and their environment from new perspectives. The Environmental Studies Program is dedicated to gaining greater understanding of the natural world from an ecological perspective; devising policies and behaviors that address contemporary environmental problems; and promoting a rethinking of basic cultural premises, ways of structuring knowledge, and the root metaphors of contemporary society.
Faculty. Core faculty members listed above have dedicated responsibilities in the program. Participating faculty members have demonstrated professional interests in environmental studies by researching environmental issues, teaching courses that meet program requirements, or participating in a variety of program activities on a voluntary basis. They are all available to advise students who are interested in environmental studies. More information about the faculty is available on the program website.
Resources. The program’s resource center has a collection of books related to environmental topics. University of Oregon students and members of the faculty and staff may borrow items for up to two weeks.
The program offers undergraduate instruction through two majors, leading to a bachelor of arts (BA) or a bachelor of science (BS) degree. A minor in environmental studies is also offered.
Both majors provide a broad, solid, interdisciplinary perspective on the relationship between humans and nature. Their goals are to develop awareness of environmental issues and to develop an understanding of (1) the nature and scope of the forces underlying environmental problems, (2) the various approaches used to bring environmental problems to the public’s attention, and (3) the methods and approaches used to solve these problems. Majors gain an appreciation of the interdisciplinary nature of environmental studies, and they master content and skills associated with a number of different disciplines.
Majors and minors have considerable latitude in designing a course of study that combines theory and practice, invites active participation, and fits specific interests, needs, and aptitudes. The majors, which provide a well-rounded basic education, prepare students for entry-level positions in business, government, nongovernmental organizations, and for a variety of graduate and professional degree programs. Students are encouraged to take advantage of career planning services offered by the Career Center.
The environmental studies major focuses on social sciences, policy studies, and the humanities. It is designed for students who are interested in such areas as environmental policy, planning, ethics or philosophy, ecocriticism, ecofeminism, environmental justice, sustainable development, international environmental issues, or social theory and the environment.
The environmental science major is designed for students who want to focus on scientific careers in conservation biology, climate, pollution prevention and abatement, or ecosystem protection, restoration, and management.
Students should plan their programs early in their undergraduate careers with the aid of an environmental studies academic advisor. Majors are urged to consider completing a second major or a minor in a related field.
Up-to-date information, major requirements sheets, and tip sheets are available in the program office and on the website.
The environmental studies curriculum is designed to provide a solid foundation in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities; to build on these foundations in advanced course work in a variety of disciplines; to develop the skills necessary to study human-environment interactions; and to encourage participation in experiential learning activities that help students prepare for active participation in the work force and in local and global communities. Students should have a strong foundation in written and verbal skills.
Courses applied to the major, except environmental studies courses numbered 401 through 409, must be taken for letter grades and passed with grades of C– or better. As many as four upper-division courses may be used to fulfill requirements of another major. At least 24 credits must be taken at the University of Oregon.
Environmental Studies Major
This major requires a minimum of 92 credits including 56 upper-division credits. Upper-division credit may be earned through course work or through a combination of course work and an honors thesis. Major requirements sheets containing detailed information about specific courses that meet the major requirements are available on the program website, in the program office, or from an environmental studies advisor.
Area 1: Lower-Division Core Courses (12 credits). Introduction to Environmental Studies: Social Sciences (ENVS 201), Introduction to Environmental Studies: Natural Sciences (ENVS 202), Introduction to Environmental Studies: Humanities (ENVS 203). These courses may be taken in any order.
Area 2: Basic Mathematics and Science Requirements (24 credits)
A university-level mathematics course numbered 100 or higher; College Algebra (MATH 111) is recommended
A course in statistics chosen from the following list: Introduction to Methods of Probability and Statistics (MATH 243), Quantitative Methods in Sociology (SOC 312), Statistical Methods I (MATH 425), or any of the statistics courses listed on the major requirements sheet
One of three approved introductory three-course sequences in a natural science and one additional course from a different sequence or a list of approved science courses
Area 3A: Upper-Division Natural Science Courses (8 credits). Any two upper-division natural science courses from the major requirements sheet.
Area 3B: Upper-Division Social Science and Humanities Courses (40 credits). Four core courses, one from each of four groups—humanities, social science, policy, and design—and six additional courses, three from one of the four groups and three from another. Refer to the major requirements sheet.
Area 4: Environmental Issues Course (4 credits). Environmental Issues (ENVS 411), or a substitute from an approved list.
Area 5: Practical Learning Experience (4 credits). Choose from one of several approved practical learning experience options. These include internships, participation in the Environmental Leadership Program, research experiences with UO faculty members, courses at field stations, study abroad opportunities, or IE3 internships.
Environmental Science Major
The major requires a minimum of 112 credits including 60 upper-division credits. Upper-division credits may be earned through course work or through a combination of course work and an honors thesis. Sample course plans are available on the program’s website. Major requirements sheets containing detailed information about specific courses that meet the major requirements are available in the program office, from an environmental science advisor, or on the program website, http://envs.uoregon.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/ESCI-major-req-1-4-12....
Area 1: Lower-Division Core Courses (8 credits). Introduction to Environmental Studies: Social Sciences (ENVS 201), Introduction to Environmental Studies: Humanities (ENVS 203).
Area 2: Basic Mathematics Requirements (32–44 credits)
Mathematics (8 credits). Calculus for the Biological Sciences I,II (MATH 246, 247) or Calculus I,II (MATH 251, 252)
A course in statistics and a course in analytical approaches chosen from an approved list (see major requirements on website)
Area 3A: Upper-Division Environmental Science Courses (40–52 credits)
Six upper-division natural science courses from an approved list in the student’s chosen focal area (life sciences or earth and physical sciences), plus five courses in the other area, at least two of which must be upper division
Natural Science (24–36 credits). Natural science courses are divided into two major categories—life sciences and earth and physical science. Students take courses from both categories but choose one as a focal area and complete two three-course introductory sequences in that focal area. An additional five courses are required from the other area, at least two of which must be upper division.
Area 3B: Upper-Division Social Science and Humanities Courses (12 credits). Three core courses chosen from among four groups—humanities, social science, policy, and design—listed on the major requirements sheet, with no more than one course per group.
Area 4: Environmental Issues Course (4 credits). Environmental Issues (ENVS 411), or a substitute from the major requirements sheet.
Area 5: Practical Learning Experience (4 credits). Choose from one of several approved practical learning experience options. These include internships, participation in the Environmental Leadership Program, research experiences with UO faculty members, and courses at field stations.
Options for Majors
Environmental Leadership Program
Through the Environmental Leadership Program, students team up with local businesses, nonprofit organizations, and government agencies to work on environmental projects. Students learn professional research, writing, and presentation skills as they develop a network of professional relationships in the region. Participants make a one- or two-term commitment, for which they earn 4–8 upper-division credits. These credits satisfy upper-division requirements for the environmental studies and environmental science majors.
By offering academic credit for environmentally focused work experience, the internship program allows students to connect their academic studies with practical applications. Internship positions must involve significant work with an environmental focus. Potential internship sponsors include public interest nonprofits, government agencies, and private corporations. Students are expected to be self-motivated and arrange their own positions in their areas of particular interest. However, if a student needs assistance finding an appropriate position program, the internship coordinator can help identify potential opportunities. Students may take 18 credits of Field Studies (ENVS 196), Internship (404), or both. To fulfill the Area 5 practical learning experience requirement, students take 4 credits (which translates to 120 hours) of internship service.
Students who want to graduate with honors in environmental science or environmental studies must have a 3.30 overall grade point average (GPA) and a 3.50 GPA in courses required for the major. Honors candidates must also complete a research-based thesis or creative project under the direction of a faculty advisor. Students preparing to graduate with honors should notify their advisor no later than the first term of their senior year.
Honors students who are not enrolled in the Clark Honors College must earn 8 credits of Research (401), Thesis (403), or both in environmental studies or another appropriate department. These credits must be distributed over at least two terms. Environmental science majors may substitute these credits for one upper-division natural science elective, environmental studies majors for one upper-division social science or humanities elective.
The interdisciplinary minor in environmental studies includes three lower-division courses and five upper-division elective courses for a minimum of 32 credits. Courses applied to the minor must be taken for letter grades and passed with grades of C– or better. At least 16 of the 40 credits must be taken at the University of Oregon. No more than 8 upper-division credits from the major may be applied to minor requirements. With the advisor’s consent, one course each from Area 4 and Area 5 may be substituted for one of the elective courses. Students may also submit a petition to their advisor to substitute one upper-division course for one of the required lower-division courses.
Required Courses: 12 credits
Introduction to Environmental Studies: Social Sciences (ENVS 201), Introduction to Environmental Studies: Natural Sciences (ENVS 202), Introduction to Environmental Studies: Humanities (ENVS 203). These courses may be taken in any order.
Advanced Course Requirements: 20 credits
Choose one natural science elective from the environmental studies major (Area 3A).
Choose four social science, humanities, policy, or design electives from the thematic groups of the environmental studies major (Area 3B).
Kindergarten through Secondary Teaching Careers
Students who complete a bachelor’s degree with a major in environmental studies or environmental science are eligible to apply for the College of Education’s fifth-year licensure program in middle-secondary teaching or the fifth-year licensure program to become an elementary teacher. More information is available from the department’s undergraduate advisor; see also the College of Education section in this catalog.
The Environmental Studies Program offers graduate study leading to the degrees of master of arts (MA) or master of science (MS) in environmental studies, and an interdisciplinary doctor of philosophy (PhD) degree in environmental sciences, studies, and policy.
Students choose courses offered in appropriate disciplines to design a course plan based on individual goals and backgrounds.
Some financial support for graduate students in the Environmental Studies Program is available through graduate teaching fellowships. Support generally consists of a stipend, health insurance, and a tuition waiver.
Application instructions and materials are available on the program’s website.
Application deadline. Applicants for admission to the master’s program must submit all necessary materials online by January 15. New students are accepted for fall term only.
Students admitted to the two-year master’s degree program must complete at least 57 credits distributed as follows:
Environmental Studies Graduate Core Sequence (9 credits). First year.
Concentration Area Course Work (24 credits). Graduate-level courses related to environmental studies in each of two 12-credit concentration areas.
Electives (12 credits)
Thesis or Terminal Project (12 credits). Public defense or presentation required.
Concurrent Master’s Degree Programs
Environmental studies students may obtain concurrent degrees in other disciplines. Applicants must apply separately to each program. For more information, contact the program office.
Doctor of Philosophy Degree
The interdisciplinary PhD degree is offered by the Environmental Studies Program under the umbrella of the Joint-Campus Graduate Program in Environmental Sciences, Studies, and Policy, established by Oregon State University, Portland State University, and the University of Oregon.
The environmental sciences, studies, and policy program takes four or more years of post–master’s degree study.
Admission to the PhD program must be granted by both the Environmental Studies Program and by the focal department—another University of Oregon academic unit, chosen by the applicant, that offers a PhD degree. Applications are reviewed independently by the admissions committee in the Environmental Studies Program and in the focal department. Both committees must approve the application before the applicant can be accepted into the program.
PhD students must satisfy breadth and concentration requirements established by the Environmental Studies Program and the focal department. Working with an advisory committee, each student customizes a plan of action for completion of the degree. There are four categories of requirements:
1. Focal Department Course Work. Completion of graduate course work as established by the focal department, which includes basic graduate-level proficiency in research methods appropriate to the designated focal discipline
2. Environmental Studies Course Work
a. Completion of 32 credits taken in departments or programs outside the focal department
b. First-year students participate in a sequence of courses required of all incoming environmental studies graduate students
3. Assessments of Competence. Completion of two assessments of competence: focal department and interdisciplinary. (The term "assessment of competence" is used in lieu of "comprehensive examination" in recognition of the different ways in which departments engage in such assessments)
4. Doctoral Dissertation
a. Completion of 18 credits of Dissertation (ENVS 603), as required by the Graduate School
b. Completion and defense of a written dissertation and approval of the dissertation by a committee chosen in accordance with Graduate School regulations. The committee must have at least five members. Both the chair and two additional members must be from the focal department. At least three members of the committee must be participants in the Environmental Studies Program.
Graduate students typically choose courses that contribute to their individual environmental focus from the Departments of Anthropology; Architecture; Biology; Chemistry; Economics; English; Geography; Geological Sciences; History; Landscape Architecture; Philosophy; Physics; Planning, Public Policy and Management; Political Science; Psychology; and Sociology; from the International Studies Program; from the School of Law; and others. Consult the individual department listings in this catalog for course descriptions.
Environmental Studies Courses (ENVS)
196 Field Studies: [Topic] (1–5R) R with instructor’s consent.
198 Laboratory Projects: [Topic] (1–2R) R with instructor’s consent.
199 Special Studies: [Topic] (1–5R)
201 Introduction to Environmental Studies: Social Sciences (4) Contributions of the social sciences to the analysis of environmental problems. Topics include human population, the relationship between social institutions and environmental problems, and appropriate political, policy, and economic processes. Walker.
202 Introduction to Environmental Studies: Natural Sciences (4) Contributions of the natural sciences to the analysis of environmental problems. Topics include biological processes, ecological principles, chemical cycling, ecosystem characteristics, and natural system vulnerability and recovery. Dickman.
203 Introduction to Environmental Studies: Humanities (4) Contributions of the humanities and arts to an understanding of the environment. Emphasis on diverse ways of thinking, writing, creating, and engaging in environmental discourse.
335 Allocating Scarce Environmental Resources (4) Considerations for the design of environmental and natural resources policies and regulations: balancing society’s preferences and the costs of environmental protection and resource conservation. Prereq: MATH 105 or higher. Cameron.
345 Environmental Ethics (4) Key concepts and various moral views surveyed; includes anthropocentrism, individualism, ecocentrism, deep ecology, and ecofeminism. Exploration includes case studies and theory. Toadvine.
350 Ecological Footprint of Energy Generation (4) Detailed study of the ecological consequences of all forms of energy generation including fossil fuels and alternative energy sources. Open to environmental science, environmental studies, and planning, public policy and management majors only. Prereq: ENVS 201. Bothun.
355 Environmental Data Analysis and Modeling (4) Statistical methods of data modeling and analysis with specific application to environmental data sets. Prereq: MATH 252 or equivalent. Bothun.
375 Oregon Seminar (4) Students broaden and deepen their understanding of the materials presented in three linked courses: BI 372 (Field Biology), GEOL 308 (Geology of Oregon and the Pacific Northwest), and HIST 473 (American Environmental History: [Topic]). Prereq: junior or senior standing. Offered alternate years.
399 Special Studies: [Topic] (1–5R)
401 Research: [Topic] (1–12R) R with instructor’s consent.
403 Thesis (1–8R)
404 Internship: [Topic] (1–16R) Prereq: instructor’s approval.
405 Reading and Conference: [Topic] (1–16R)
406 Field Studies: [Topic] (1–12R) R with instructor’s consent.
407/507 Seminar: [Topic] (1–5R)
408/508 Workshop: [Topic] (1–8R)
409 Practicum: [Topic] (1–12R) R with instructor’s consent.
410/510 Experimental Course: [Topic] (1–5R)
411/511 Environmental Issues: [Topic] (4R) In-depth examination of a particular environmental topic such as global warming, ecosystem restoration, energy alternatives, geothermal development, public lands management, or environmental literature. Junior or senior standing required. R twice when topic changes for maximum of 12 credits.
425/525 Environmental Education Theory and Practice (4) Learning theories, environmental literacy, and the planning, implementation, and evaluation of environmental education programs. Development of teaching materials in collaboration with a community partner for group project. Prereq: instructor’s approval. Lynch.
427/527 Environmental and Ecological Monitoring (4) Theory, design, and practice of monitoring sampling mapping, field techniques, data collection, management, analysis and presentation methods, local case studies. Boulay.
429 Environmental Leadership: [Topic] (1–4R) Students develop service-learning projects partnering with government agencies, nonprofit organizations, public schools, and local businesses. Prereq: instructor’s approval. R when topic changes.
435/535 Environmental Justice (4) Environmental justice and its impact on current decisions. Focus on civil rights law, perception of risk, and relation of sustainability and equity. Prereq: ENVS 201.
440/540 Environmental Aesthetics (4) Explores aesthetic experience of nature through philosophical perspective; emphasizes nature and art; beauty and the sublime; embodiment, culture, and science; and ethics, conservation, and preservation. Prereq: ENVS 345 or PHIL 340.
450/550 Political Ecology (4) Examines how social relations and economic, social, and cultural control of natural resources shape human interactions with the environment. Theory and case studies. Prereq: ENVS 201. Walker.
455/555 Sustainability (4) Examines the evolution of the concept of sustainability and its complex and sometimes problematic uses among scholars, policymakers, environmentalists, and businesses. Junior standing required. Pre- or coreq: ENVS 201.
465/565 Wetland Ecology and Management (4) Examines management, law, and policies related to wetlands in an ecological framework; includes wetland type definitions, classification, distribution, formation and development, and restoration. Prereq: BI 307 or 370 or GEOG 360.
467/567 Sustainable Agriculture (4) Examines sustainability issues in agricultural production and current food systems. Focuses on environmental aspects of seed, water, soil, energy, and pest management. Prereq: ENVS 201 or 202.
477/577 Soil Science (4) Chemical and physical characteristics and classification of soils, field soil identification, soil degradation. Prereq: CH 111 or 221 or 224 (H).
503 Thesis (1–16R)
601 Research: [Topic] (1–16R) R with instructor’s consent.
602 Supervised College Teaching (1–5R) R with instructor’s consent.
603 Dissertation (1–16R)
604 Internship: [Topic] (1–5R) R for maximum of 10 credits
605 Reading and Conference: [Topic] (1–16R) R with instructor’s consent and faculty approval.
606 Field Studies: [Topic] (1–16R)
607 Seminar: [Topic] (1–5R)
608 Workshop: [Topic] (1–16R)
609 Terminal Project (1–16R)
610 Experimental Course: [Topic] (1–5R) A recent topic is Interdisciplinary Science Research.
631 Environmental Studies Theory and Practice (4) Introduction to various disciplinary perspectives that contribute to environmental studies, including their research methods, vocabularies, and core concepts.
632 Environmental Studies Research Methodology (2) Identifying a clear and concise research problem, developing methodology to address that problem, and the process of developing a thorough knowledge of relevant literature.
633 Environmental Studies Thesis Development (3) Interdisciplinary readings in environmental studies focused on topics chosen by each student in consultation with instructor; preparation for presentations at the Joint Campus Conference.